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Selection Sort
Delphi Pascal


      Selection sort is one of the simplest sorting algorithms, but it is only suitable for sorting small data sets. It locates the element with the smallest value and exchanges it with the element in the first place. It then moves to the second place, and scans the entire list for the next smallest element, and exchanges that with the value in the second place, and so on, until it reaches the end of the list. Because it scans the remaining list for each position in the list, it is to time consuming and inefficient to use as a sorting method for very large lists...

Using Selection Sort to sort
a Tstrings type using the 'Exchange' method

      The OpenDialog.Files 'Tstrings' property holds the file (or files) the user chooses when the dialog executes. It is a Read Only property, but you can move the order of the files around if you use the Tstrings 'Exchange' swap function. This 'swap function' mimics the behavior of the Selection Sort Algorithm, which is suitable for sorting short lists. The code moves through a list, and at each position in the list, it checks all the following positions to see if an item further down the list has a value less than the current position. If the value is less than the current item, then it belongs in the place occupied by the current item, and a simple swap takes place. Because selection sort searches to the end of the list for each element in the list, it is suitable only for shorter lists, and a more efficient search technique should be used for long lists. The Tstrings property 'Count' holds the number of elements in the string array, starting from '1' (it would be zero if the array was empty). However the strings in the array are accessed from '0' the first element, which means that when you want to move through each element, from first to last, the last element must be accessed as Tstrings[Tstrings.Count-1] to avoid generating an exception (string index out of bounds)....

Using Selection sort to arrange the elements
in an OpenDialog.Files Tstrings element

procedure TForm1.OpenDialogSortfiles;
var counter, look:integer; temp:Tstrings;
begin
if OpenDialog1.Files.Count<>1 then begin
     temp := TStringList.Create;

{strings with mixed upper and lower case names will not sort alphabetically since strings are sorted based on the digital value of letters and not the letters themselves...therefore the sort will be based upon lowercase strings but the filenames themselves will not be changed to avoid the possiblity of error messages on systems set to be case sensitive ... The OpenDialog Tstrings property is Read Only so in order for the sort to work correctly a temporary Tstrings variable will be used to hold the actual indexing value for the sort}

     for counter:=0 to OpenDialog1.Files.Count-1 do
          temp.Append(LowerCase(OpenDialog1.Files.Strings[counter]));
          for counter:=0 to temp.Count-1 do
               for look:=counter+1 to temp.Count-1 do
               if temp[look]<temp[counter] then begin
               OpenDialog1.Files.Exchange(look, counter);
               temp.Exchange(look,counter);
     end;
          temp.Free;
end; {if}
end;

      Selection sort can also be used to sort arrays of strings or numbers, but, while the code works the same as it does when sorting a Tstrings list, as illustrated above, the Exchange function must be replaced with code that performs the same swapping function, and this results in the creation of a few extra variables, as well as some extra code...

Using Selection Sort to sort an array

      In the following example I am assuming that the array is a 'global variable' since passing an array to a function and then returning an array from a function seems like a waste of resources, so the code is written as a procedure...You should determine that the array actually contains some values before calling this code, and is not empty, and then pass the value of the last element in the array as the variable 'Top' to avoid generating an error...In the following code the array is denoted by the variable name TheArray. If the array is a string array keep in mind that mixed lower and upper case entries will not be sorted properly for the reasons mentioned above...

Procedure TForm1.SelectionSortArray(Top:integer);
var
counter, min, look:integer;
temp:string; {if the array is of integer type then temp must be defined as 'integer' etc.}
begin
     for counter:=0 to Top do begin
          min:=counter;
          for look:=counter+1 to top do
               if TheArray[look]<TheArray[min] then min:=look;
               temp:=TheArray[min]; TheArray[min]:=TheArray[counter];
               TheArray[count]:=temp;
          end;
end;

You can download the source code as a text file by right clicking on the following link -> selection_sort.txt


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A Unified Field Theory

failed_gravity_theory.gif - 10361 Bytes



The Unified Field Theory
is also available as a zip file ->
unified.zip

Introduction :The Pioneer Effect and the New Physics. A brief description of the new physics required to explain the 'Pioneer Effect', which is the constant deceleration of space craft as they fly through space.




Principles of Evolution: A Study in the Evolution of Bedbugs



A couple of years ago my bedroom was invaded by bedbugs. There were two variant genetic lines. One type of bedbug was an enlongated, thin, tubular insect, and the second genetic line was a flat, perfectly circular insect. The result of the cross breeding of these two genetically distinct variants was the production of a bedbug with charcteristics of both, an enlongated, flat bedbug with a central bulge (such that the shape of the bedbug was somewhere between 'long' and 'circular'). The long skinny bedbugs were such strange and unfamiliar looking insects that at first I did not recognize them as being bedbugs, and considered them to be a seperate species of insect. However, as the photographs of bedbugs above indicate, enlongated and skinny bedbugs are not uncommon, and the photographs also show the variants that are produced by genetic combinations that result in an insect somewhere in between 'circular' and 'enlongated'.

Therefore it is my hypothesis that evolution occurs by means of the transfer of dominate genes, with the production of such dominant genes being the product of 'biological algorithms', a genetic software program that brings physical characteristics into harmony with behavior, such that when behavior changes, and a conflict then exists, this acts as a trigger and causes the release of dominant genes. The result is rapid evolution of species. The bedbug is a relatively new insect, not the product of millions of years of evolution but rather an insect that is evolving in real time. The newly emerging dominant form of the insect is the flat, round ciruclar insect, well adapted to living in human bedrooms (it is flat, rather than tubular, thus allowing it to hide in the smallest cracks, living a stealthy lifestyle, and it is round, which gives the insect a maximum storage capacity such that it must endanger itself only a few times a month by emerging to feed.

Other examples of rapid evolution include the development of long legs in an invasive species of toad in Australia. As the toads move into the mountainous regions of Australia, and their behvaior changes, making them 'climbing toads', over the course of just a couple of decades the toads in the highlands have grown long legs specially adapted to climbing. It is worth noting here that the toads are poisonous, and are a successful invasive species because they have no natural predators in Australia, and so it would not be the case that the toads with long legs were 'the fittest survivors', because all the toads are survivors, and therefore predation does not explain the rapid emergence and spread of such well adapted, long legged toads. Once again we see evidence for the existence of biological algorithms and the rapid spread of dominant genes through a population, which once introduced proceed to overwhelm the older genes which are being replaced (making toad long legged and a bed bug round and flat).


A Theological Experiment

My interest in pursuing the Unified Field Theory is spurred on by my need to discover the theoretical explanation of a new form of propulsion (as explained on this page: Why the Unified Field Theory?). The experiment involving the bedbugs came out of nowhere.

I also believe that it is possible to justify theological propositions using experimental methods. If a thing is an objective truth then it can be verified and proven true by means of experimentation. Such a theological proposition is of more value than a ‘divine revelation’, since such revelations depend upon nothing more than establishing authority figures which requires the creation of artificial hierarchies, for the only reason why I might be encouraged to believe an authority figure who orders me to believe unsubstantiated opinions is if I could somehow be convinced that this authority possessed a mind that was somehow superior to mine, and thus was fit to express opinions as though opinions were unquestionable facts and thus worthy of being elevated to the status of absolute dogma.

There is a self evident human inequality which is visibly apparent. Some people are ‘beautiful’ and thus are the true elite on this planet, and some people are not. It is this sexual inequality and the degeneration that follows upon beauty that is the true driving force behind all the evil that happens on earth. The need for ruthless oppression and the pursuit of wealth and the consequent creation of suffering and poverty which must follow upon this practice is for the purpose of creating an artificial alpha elite.

The true elites are the young and the beautiful. The artificial elite are the rich and the wealthy. The elite aging rich artificial alpha male has no good looks, for he is physically degenerate, but he will be found escorting beauty because he has a beautiful wallet. If he loses his wallet he will be found at home with all the other unattractive aged beta males sitting in a rocking chair watching reruns of Bonanza. No money, no sex. It is for this reason that the alpha males are found to be so ruthless and so violent in pursuit of their goal. The alpha male has fallen. The beta male has arisen and now the whole planet is full of ruinous destruction for it.

We see in religion a confused and contradictory reaction to this reality. On the one hand religion preaches a sexless heaven where castration and the clitorectomy create ‘pure spirits’. Muslims throw women under sacks. On the other hand religion supports hierarchy and is the prop of the elite alpha male. It is for this reason that religion is incoherent when it comes to speaking about sex.

Now we see this same principle at work in all of nature. Guppies dance and show off their colorful tails and the guppy who dances with the most colorful tail is the sexually successful guppy. Therefore it is the doctrine of the ruthless oppressor which teaches that the solution to human sexual violence is to be found in castration and the creation of pure ghosts. This would be equivalent to damning an aardvark for having the ‘sinful aardvark nature’ or prosecuting an anteater for the high crime of ‘ant genocide’.

Therefore it was my theological hypothesis that the correct solution to this problem is to give every guppy a beautiful colorful tail. I compare this solution to the classic religious solution which is to cut off every tail since having a tail is ‘sinful’. If having a tail is sinful then God must be sinful for no human being has any choice in deciding whether or not they would be born with a colorful tail, or whether they would not.

When I was young I was a beautiful guppy with a lovely tail. So everyone seemed to think. I am older now. My nose became very badly sunburned and destroyed. It seemed good to me to test my hypothesis by using these ‘biological algorithms’ to correct this problem. I healed half my nose as you can see by the line separating the still very dark patch on the side in the photograph below.





I documented my experiment on these pages. one two t hree four fi ve six


I have confirmed to my own satisfaction that my theological proposition is correct and that religious dogma is erroneous, being based as it was upon nothing more than ‘divine revelation’ which is just a form of opinionated speculation. For the time being I am not continuing this experiment, for I must wait until the weather on this planet improves, and the dark clouds of ruthless oppression break letting a little sun shine come through so that I can show the world the truth about God, by showing people how God goes about giving an old guppy back his beautiful colorful tail.


Until then I will have to sit on the sidelines, while all my scientific breakthroughs are deliberately ignored, while I wonder to myself what ever in the world could be wrong with the human race, because what this all will prove at the end of it all is that there definitely was something wrong with the people on this planet.